Wednesday, October 14, 2015

Wagner took 26 years to composing the ring charm lie

The ring is 16 hours, take 4 nights in a row to finish

The ring of the Nibelung of Wagner's four-Opera music history, the history of Opera and drama can be called a masterpiece of epic proportions.

In 2010, Germany Cologne opera had offered in the Shanghai Grand Theater for two consecutive round play this festival. In October, during the Shanghai International Art Festival, turned over to the Music Hall also started a version of the ring--Austria Tyrol Music Festival "24-hour concert". More than 120 people Symphony Orchestra Chorus solo actor, 39, 80 people, 24 hours of hardships, and this version regardless of the Platform team, is also the audience, will be a great test.

Recently, Yang Yandi guest handed Vice President of Shanghai Conservatory of Music Hall, starting from the basic problems of the Opera, count this extravaganza of music and creative. Do not understand the show's audience, take a look at this lecture finish, ahead of performing work.

Wagner was a giant in music history and the history of European art, the ups and downs of his life, love, family, career was filled with drama.

He created more than 10 operas, can be divided into two periods. Prior to 1850, he even wrote a romantic Opera is based on the traditional, such as the drift of the Netherlands people (1841), Tannhäuser (1845), Lohengrin (1848). Later, he began writing music drama, including the ring, as well as the creation of the ring gap wrote Tristan and Isolde (1859), the singer of Nuremberg (1867), the last of the Parsifal (1882), preface.

Wagner from the drift of the Netherlands after the people of drama are the art masterpieces, rare for high quality music history.

While Wagner is dissatisfied with the condition of traditional opera, the development of so-called "art". His later art form known as "total art" that they play is inclusive of the whole art of all types of art, such dramas as "music drama"-music and drama, to distinguish it from the traditional opera.

He is one of the rare all-rounder. In writing, he will be history, philosophy, mythology, poetry, plastic arts, instrumental music, vocal performances, one, write their own scripts, composer, trained singers, Orchestra, end Theatre in Bayreuth. Thus, every detail of the music drama, he can control.

Meaning on the subject matter and ideas, his show has a character, in addition to the singers of Nuremberg, is full of mythological themes.

In Wagner's opinion, only rooted in the myth of national spirit, to express the most profound propositions. He sees himself as the social function of music drama and Opera is different, particularly looked down on Italy and France Opera, think they are fun and safe, and his music drama is purified and teachings for the audience, is an attitude to art as a religion.

Story and meaning

The ring still

The 16-hour, 4 consecutive nights can be played out of the ring, the most complete representation of Wagner's creative pursuits and aesthetic ideals.

He was God (gods), (giants, heroes, mortals), and land (gnome) three competing around the ring as the main line, highly symbolic style reveals the contract, and betrayal, power and love, survival and destruction, such as the problems of human society, led to various interpretations and production during the past century.

Ring a symbol of power, but also accompanied by cursing, got the ring of people do not have a hospice care, each relevant roles in the play are evidence of this.

Story: dwarf aerbolixi create a ring represents the infinite power and wealth, King of the gods Wotan violence claimed, was the curse. He will ring as the construction of the palaces of the gods reward, gave the giant brothers. Dispute with giant brothers, my brother died at the hands of his brother. The curse came true, Wotan afraid of magic rings, into the room gave birth to a child, hoped through the free will of the efforts recaptured rings, eternal spirit world peace.

Wotan's daughter love hero Siegfried and Brünnhilde, who killed the giant, made a ring. But he aerbolixi his son Hagen ecstasy, collectivisation under his spear. Brünnhilde and finally the ring thrown into the Rhine, into the fire. Hands of the Lord of the rings back to the Rhine maiden, the fire spread to the House, throughout the territories in the vast destruction in the fire of God.

The ring still

This large-scale music drama, Wagner's life worked hard for. Entire creation since 1848, ended in 1874, before and after 26 years. Total plays absorbing medieval Germany narrative poems of the nibolong Cup rings, folk legends woersong legends, ancient Nordic folk songs such as the ADA-related material, is also protected by ancient Greece tragedy.

Wagner wrote the script, to write music, but their creation order reversed. His script was written backwards, that is, starting from the last of the twilight of the gods, further back, followed by Siegfried, the Valkyries and the gold of the Rhine. Music written from scratch, the gold of the Rhine, and the Valkyries and the Siegfried and the twilight of the gods in turn.

In the process of writing, Wagner was in financial straits, there are many legends. Although written 26 years, but four plays from scratch in place uniform, because he was a unifying motive system.

Application of motive

The ring still

The show has several music features, starting with "motive". This is about the first proposition of Wagner and his works.

"Motive" as a material with a rich symbolic meaning and unlimited development potential cells, not only refers to specific characters, feelings, ideas or objects, and according to different play situations for symphonic fissile, combination, variation and transformation.

For example, in the play "sword" motive is a major triad, very beautiful; "ring" motive is half minus seven chords, like a little semicircle, sounds gloomy and ominous. In the ring, which is at the Centre of the motive throughout, as well as to promote the development and played a role in integrating structure and become a central element in Wagner's music drama style.

The gold of the Rhine, for example. The show begin "Rhine" motive, it depicts the Rhine River, also represents the most pure nature. Wagner used the band continuous decomposition of a major triad, to portray the Rhine River flows, but also symbolizes the nature of primitive and without pollution. Back as long as the River, nature, mother earth, intent, there could be the motivation.

Germany had no movie capture Wagner entirely on music, we feel the situation through movies and scenes. His music is too imaginative, good choreography, cannot present the music itself to your imagination.

Another example of "spear," motives, their music style is straight down the scale. It is a "compact" symbol every time when it comes to Wotan to keep his promise, the band would use copper pipe playing of this motive.

Hundreds of motivation of the entire ring, but the important thing about more than 10 (such as, curse of the ring, swords, Spears, and the gods hero's motives), which runs through the play, so that the whole structure is effectively unified. Wagner by the motive to symbolize the characters, describing events, is a very effective technique.

So, to learn about Wagner's music drama, first of all, to understand the motive of usage. Listen to the ring before, you had better prepare, remember some of the Center's motives, like labels.

The motive has two characteristics. First, he is particularly good at using a specific music style to capture a certain character or situation, strong sense of style. Then flexibility. If Wagner wrote symphonies, he must be a great composer. His ability to use the motive is very strong, variety, superb, one motivation will continue to develop and even joined with other motives, entanglement, each according to the plot changes were made, was the product of systematic unity and flexibility.

The complex relationship between voice and Orchestra

The ring still

Band, also received an unprecedented increase in Wagner's music drama, became drama central element of narrative and meaning of expression, its position is not only not under human voice, sometimes even beyond the vocals, plays lead.

It's definitely not vocal accompaniment, not foil, but alignment with it. Singers Sing Wagner is difficult, they often do not have clear support from the band, the band and the song entirely, entirely complex modes.

If the vocal melodies and lyrics express the drama outside of the specific context and content, the band's music without words, tends to portray the drama inside the hidden meaning and meaning. In other words, will render even the band sublime meaning of the lyrics. Each punch earned $ 570,000, Mayweather with 49

Music drama Wagner's vocal style is often declared in Syria, but also does not exclude such as the melody of the song. Vocals, and the band formed two relationships: one is to contrast, vocals, and the band is completely different; then the human voice as a voice, participation to interweave in the band. This is Wagner's new concept, and Italy in the Opera Orchestra accompaniment and foil, the opposite.

So Wagner's melodic style is flexible and changeable, known as the "prose". Italy, and France Opera closer to the style of verse, songs are section 8 or section 4, section is clear.

As an example of the Valkyries. This is the quadruple play is the most balanced, one of the best, the first act there is a famous "love Duet". The play, twin children-Zigmond Wotan and Sieglinde in love, gave birth to a son, Siegfried. Two men have been separated for many years, recognized each other, into a fiery love. Here there was a love Duet love theme appeared in large numbers in the band, vocals became a part of the band.

So, listening to Wagner, half you want to focus on the band. He said, lyrics sang in the level, the Orchestra is something inside, it's very complex.

Band writing skills

The ring band

In the hands of Wagner, who is the most important person? Is the invisible band.

Characters don't know past and present on the stage, but the band is all knowing, like God. He greatly expanded the band's rich expressive and in some ways more than he state that the band writing.

When you hear the ring, you'll find Richard Strauss too much like him, he is another peak of band art, without Wagner, absolutely does not Strauss. Berlioz, Wagner, Strauss, Ravel wrote the band is good, is Wagner's greatest. He wrote operas, Opera has all kinds of situations requires the band to show, and he in front of every challenge, never defeated.

First, Wagner began to use large four-pipe Orchestra. Generally great band using two harps, he used six, eight horns, preparation is huge.

In addition, he also invented new musical instruments, such as the Wagner tuba. He not only made musical instruments, its orchestration techniques based on the plot needs changing, from the ear to the nuanced, effect is magnificent, the technique of novel, "magician" of the title is not langdexuming.

Then, he like put string Le subdivision into various group, hard pulled, was like solo, each bit musicians are to play; its band of special color also is copper tube, like all God of King Wotan of deep psychological state, will with to painting like heavy of copper tube; wood tube of color and lyrics sex, also full get has play......

To cite an example. Siegfried in the ring is the most powerful one, because it is written the hero Siegfried, very masculine. Qi is one of the most difficult to sing tenor, singer to stay for four hours on the stage, sing out, and sing all the way to the climax. Is a nightmare.

Here is my very favorite Arias. Act III third, Brünnhilde sleeps for thousands of years, only the greatest heroes can be kissed awake, the man is Siegfried.

Wagner simply used the band's approach to describe the awakening process. Wake up in our daily lives is a minute or two, he extended it to 8-10 minutes. Brünnhilde cheers cheers, cheers and the day of the Sun, light, Wagner, harp, woodwinds, high strings, make people feel that sense of light. Wake up, Brünnhilde glare, and subtle details, were also tracing out the music.

This is the greatest recovery depends on this episode, Wagner will be immortal.


Opera is not just a story, the key is to music what to do with this story. It can be said that the ring was unprecedented, virtually unchallenged monumental work. More than 100 years, handed down from, it constantly, despite the long and tedious fragment, but numerous highlights and overall artistic quality and ensure its continued success.

This play is also a severe challenge to the audience's intelligence, patience, because the time scale is magnified exponentially. As a wake up Kiss Wagner could write for 10 minutes, all things he enlarged, the plot progresses very slowly. So many people hate Wagner, because he made everything very serious, amplifying, weight increased.

Due to the musical connotation of complex and profound, the audience also highly focused for a long time, challenges such as "Mount Everest". But if you overcome the challenge, enjoyment and benefits will come.

(Based on the Yang Yandi lecture "the musical ideas of the ring of the Nibelung" sorting, content deletions, Xue Maomao has contributed. )